AUTOSHUTTLE
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Annex A4: Energy Consumption

Calculation of Consumption for Car Transport at the different Trip Phases

a) Running in a Convoy at constant Speed with the following Consumption Components:
 

Term Value Unit
electro-magn. losses*
0.15
l diesel/100km/cabin
car-on-board consumpt**
0.23
l diesel/100km/car
cabin-on-board consumption***
0.19
l diesel/100km/cabin
air resistance (see Annex A3)    

*electro-magnetic losses: losses depend on material choice for the rails. It is assumed that a cabin in a convoy has electro-magnetic losses of 10 % of the air resistance at 180 km/h. It follows a consumption of 0.15 l diesel/100km. Cabins travelling singly have double losses

**averaged car-on-board power consumption 1,5 kW; efficiency of inductive on-board energy supply from wayside component on: 0.8

***averaged cabin-on-board consumption 1.2 kW for air gap control, safety and communication electronics, MMI and window control. It results with an efficiency from primary energy to the air gap of 0.32 (see figure):

The figure shows the energy consumption of loaded car-cabins depending on the convoy length (air resistance according to Annex A3 plus addition for unforeseen effects).

Exemplary values from the figure:


Convoy Length Consump. Single 
Cabin
Consump. Total
Convoy
120
1.7
l diesel/100km
204.0
l diesel/100km
80
1.9
l diesel/100km
152.0
l diesel/100km
60
2.0
l diesel/100km
120.0
l diesel/100km
38
2.2
l diesel/100km
83,6
l diesel/100km
30
2.4
l diesel/100km
72.0
l diesel/100km
10
3.3
l diesel/100km
33.0
l diesel/100km
5
5.4
l diesel/100km
27.0
l diesel/100km
4
6.2
l diesel/100km
24.8
l diesel/100km
3
7.5
l diesel/100km
22.5
l diesel/100km
2
10.5
l diesel/100km
21.0
l diesel/100km
1
20.0
l diesel/100km
20.0
l diesel/100km

Empty cabins have a 0,23 l diesel /100km lower consumption, since the car-on-board consumption is void.

b) Trip phase: Reclose gaps in the convoy (assumption: one gap each 10 cabins)
 

Term Value Unit
length of a gap
5.0
m
acceleration
1.0
m/s²
time for closing gap
5.5
s
travelled distance in this time
274
m
convoys from 10 cabins each
3.3
l diesel/100km/car

c) Trip phase: acceleration from 0 to 180 km/h
 

Term Value Unit
distance for acceleration
1250
m
Convoys of:    
10 cars
1.1
l diesel/100km/car
5 cars
1.8
l diesel/100km/car
4 cars
2.0
l diesel/100km/car

d) trip phase: braking a single vehicle from 180 to 0 km/h
 

Term Value Unit
distance travelled
1250
m
1 car
 6,6
l diesel/100km/car

e) Additional consumption due to empty runs

Scenario: Line Breitscheider Kreuz – Cologne Airport Traffic flows are different in both directions. Compensation empty moves are necessary. Number of daily transported road vehicles and fraction of lorries and buses corresponds to the traffic volume map assuming that 50% of motorway traffic volume changes over to AUTOSHUTTLE.

ea) Partition of a day into times of different traffic densities

Rush hours: 6:00 to 8:00 o’clock and16:00 to 18:00 o’clock
 

vehicles during rush hour vehicles/hour lorry/bus partition
in direction 1
2000
0.1
in direction 2
3000
0.1

periods of medium traffic density: 8:00 to 16:00 o’clock and 18:00 to 21:00 o'clock
 

vehicles during medium time vehicles/hour lorry/bus partition
in direction 1
1400
0.15
in direction 2
1600
0.15

time of low traffic density: 21:00 to 6:00 o’clock
 

vehicles during low hours vehicles/hour lorry/bus partition
in direction 1
506
0.28
in direction 2
508
0.28

total traffic per day:
 

  vehicle/day lorry/bus partition
Total number of vehicles per day
62126
0.15
Total number of cars per day
52621
 
Total number of lorries and buses per day
9505
 

eb) Calculation of lengths and patronage of convoys from ea)
 

During the rush hour is a departure each
2
minutes car-convoys with    
in direction 1
60
loaded and
30
empty cabins
in direction 2
90
loaded and
0
empty cabins
During the rush hour is a departure each
6
minutes lorry/bus-convoys with    
in direction 1
20
loaded and
10
empty cabins
in direction 2
30
loaded and
0
empty cabins
During the medium time is a departure each
2
minutes car-convoys with    
in direction 1
40
loaded and
6
empty cabins
in direction 2
45
loaded and
0
empty cabins
During the medium time is a departure each
7
minutes lorry/bus-convoys with    
in direction 1
25
loaded and
4
empty cabins
in direction 2
28
loaded and
0
empty cabins
During the low traffic time is a departure each
4
minutes car-convoys with    
in direction 1
24
loaded and
0
empty cabins
in direction 2
24
loaded and
0
empty cabins
During the low traffic time is a departure each
7
minutes lorry/bus-convoys with    
in direction 1
17
loaded and
0
empty cabins
in direction 2
17
loaded and
0
empty cabins

ec) Number and consumption of convoys at constant speed
 

During the rush-hour there are
120
car-convoys/dir.
consumption/convoy in direction 1
146
l diesel/100km/convoy
consumption/convoy in direction 2
153
l diesel/100km/convoy
During medium time there are
330
car-convoys/dir.
consumption/convoy in direction 1
89
l diesel/100km/convoy
consumption/convoy in direction 2
91
l diesel/100km/convoy
During low traffic time there are
135
car-convoys/dir.
consumption/convoy in direction 1
58
l diesel/100km/convoy
consumption/convoy in direction 2
59
l diesel/100km/convoy

ed) Trip phases

Averaged trip length is 35 km. Station distance be 5 km. It results:

During the rush-hour starting car-convoys have 9 loaded and 4 empty cabins in direction 1 and 13 loaded cabins in direction 2. During medium traffic time starting car-convoys have 6 loaded and 1 empty cabins in direction 1 and 6 loaded cabins in direction 2. During low traffic time starting car-convoys have 3 loaded and 0 empty cabins in direction 1 and 3 loaded cabins in direction 2. Total trip is composed by start, travelling at constant speed with gap reclosing phases at the stations and breaking.
 

Traffic time Rush Medium Low Unit
Start
1634
2376
2563
1E-5 l diesel/trip
Constant speed
61532
65358
74192
1E-5 l diesel/trip
Reclosing gaps
5417
5417
5417
1E-5 l diesel/trip
Breaking
8250
8250
8250
1E-5 l diesel/trip
Total
76832
81401
90422
1E-5 l diesel/trip
Total
2.2
2.3
2.6
l diesel/car/100km
Fraction of total trips
0.342
0.533
0.125
%

f) Resulting energy consumption in energy equivalent to l diesel at the gas station considering all trip phases and empty runs:

2,3 l diesel/car/100km or 102 miles/US-gallon of diesel oil